Category Archives: Learn German

Lesson 12: Present Tense for Irregular Verbs in German

A few lessons ago we learned how to build Present Tense for regular verbs. It seemed pretty easy because each verb followed s simple standard pattern and received an ending that could easily be remembered. Now, if there are regular verbs you are right to suggest that there are irregular verbs, too. And Building Present Tense for them can become a little bit more challenging, though surely not impossible.

Now, let’s first remember how to build Present Simple Tense (Präsens) for regular verbs: You take the verb’s stem and add a personal ending to that. The endings you learned before can easily apply to irregular verbs as well.

One more time  here are personal pronouns that you must know really well by now.

ich I
du You (informal)
er/sie/es He/she/it
wir We
ihr You
sie / Sie They/You (formal)

The endings pattern is the following:

ich e
du st
er/sie/es t
wir en
ihr t
sie / Sie en

Now, let’s discuss irregular verbs. There are a few categories/types of such verbs. Today we will talk about two of them.

1. Stem-changing verbs (or Strong Verbs)

These verbs are conjugated using the pattern provided above. The only difference will be the change of the letter/sound in the stem in the du- and  er-form.

There can be the following types of stem changing.

  • a > ä

fahren (to drive)

ich fahre
du fährst
er/sie/es fährt
wir fahren
ihr fahrt
sie / Sie fahren
  • au > äu

laufen (to run)

ich laufe
du läufst
er/sie/es läuft
wir laufen
ihr lauft
sie / Sie laufen
  • e > i

sprechen (to speak)

ich spreche
du sprichst
er/sie/es spricht
wir sprechen
ihr sprecht
sie / Sie sprechen
  • e > ie

sehen (to see)

ich sehe
du siehst
er/sie/es sieht
wir sehen
ihr seht
sie / Sie sehen

2. Other irregular verbs

There are verbs in German that are conjugated based on an individual pattern. One of such verbs you already know. This is the verb ‘sein’ (to be).

ich bin
du bist
er/sie/es ist
wir sind
ihr seid
sie / Sie sind

The others are haben (to have), werden (to become), wissen (to know).

ich habe werde weiß
du hast wirst weißt
er/sie/es hat wird weiß
wir haben werden wissen
ihr habt werdet wisst
sie / Sie haben werden wissen

Below you will find a list of a few irregular verbs. Please conjugate them based on the stem vowel and its change pattern.

Nehmen, lesen, essen, gebe, sprechen, fahren, raten, laden, halten, tragen, waschen

Please fill in the table with correct form of verbs (Please leave the last column as it is because we have not yet discussed the modal verbs)


Lesson 11. Plural Form for Nouns in German

Today we will talk about building Plural in German. It is relatively more complex than in English. What we do in English (in most cases anyways) we add an ending –s to the noun and we get a plural form of the same noun.


house – houses

table ‑ tables

lamp – lamps

Of course there will be exceptions such as child – children, tooth – teeth, woman – women, etc. Yet, basically it is very simple.

German system of Plural building is, however, way more complicated. Based on the type of plural form building we can form a number of groups.

Let’s take a look at these groups.

A noun gets a suffix –e (with or without an umlaut)

Here belong:

  • Over 80% of masculine nouns
    der Gast – die Gäste,
    der Sohn – die Söhne,
    der Stuhl – die Stühle;
    der Tag – die Tage,
    der Abend – die Abende
  • Some neuter nouns (mostly polysyllabic but some nouns with one syllable too) with no umlaut added
    das Diktat – die Diktate;
    das Problem – die Probleme;
    das Diplom – die Diplome;
    das Telefon – die Telefone;
    das Jahr – die Jahre;
    das Heft – die Hefte
  • Around 30 one-syllable feminine nouns with an –a-(-u-) in the stem
    die Hand – die Hände,
    die Wand – die Wände,
    die Nacht – die Nächte,
    die Stadt – die Städte,
    die Kuh – die Kühe

A noun gets a suffix -(e)n without an umlaut

Here belong:

  • Most feminine nouns
    die Frage – die Fragen,
    die Zeitung – die Zeitungen,
    die Frau – die Frauen,
    die Freundin – die Freundinnen
  • Masculine nouns of a weak declension type
    der Student – die Studenten,
    der Herr – die Herren,
    der Name – die Namen
  • A few neuter nouns
    das Bett – die Betten,
    das Hemd – die Hemden,
    das Auge – die Augen,
    das Ohr – die Ohren,
    das Herz – die Herzen,
    das Interesse – die Interessen,
    das Insekt – die Insekten,
    das Ende – die Enden

A noun gets a suffix –er with an umlaut

Here belong:

  • One-syllable neuter nouns
    das Buch – die Bücher
    das Haus – die Häuser
  • A few masculine nouns
    der Mann – die Männer
    der Wald – die Wälder
    der Gott –  die Götter
    der Mund – die Münder
    der Wurm – die Würmer
    der Rand – die Ränder
    der Irrtum – die Irrtümer

A noun does not get a suffix, it gets an umlaut or remains the same

Here belong:

  • Masculine nouns ending with –er, -el, -en

der Vater – die Väter,
der Vogel – die Vögel,
der Garten – die Gärten

  • Neuter nouns ending with er, -el, -en, -chen, -lein, or beginning with ge- and ending with –e

das Fenster – die Fenster,
das Mittel – die Mittel,
das Mädchen – die Mädchen,
das Fräulein – die Fräulein,
das Gebäude – die Gebäude

  • Two feminine nouns:
    die Mutter – die Mütter,
    die Tochter – die Töchter

A noun gets an ending –s with no umlaut

Here belong:

  • Neuter and Masculine Nouns with foreign origin:
    das Kino – die Kinos,
    das Auto – die Autos
    der Park – die Parks,
    der Klub – die Klubs

As you see the system of Nouns Plural Form building is very complex, yet it is still a SYSTEM, so it can be memorized.

Your task will be to learn all the types of plural form building and learn all the new words you have come across in today’s lesson.

Also, please fill in the blanks using words from the picture:

Lesson 10: Use of Gender in German

You already have noticed that German just like English has articles. However, English is simplified, having just two articles, a and the. Strictly speaking, German also has only two articles, a definite one and an indefinite one. The only difference (major!) from English is that articles are gender-specific and also depend on the cases. We will talk about cases at some point later but for now we will talk about gender.

Like in most languages German nouns are categorized into masculine, feminine and neuter. Yet, it is very important not to mix them up if you want to use proper grammar. Here is when the article comes into play.

Der – for masculine nouns

Die – for feminine nouns

Das – for neuter nouns

You will ask how to know what gender the word is. Well, you won’t know unless you learn the words (this is the reason why it is recommended to learn German words together with the article). Of course, there are recommendations how to remember certain groups of words and their gender but they do not categorize all the nouns. You will have to use a dictionary to look the word up and your common sense. You will sure know that Mann (a man) is definitely masculine, and Frau (woman) is no doubt feminine.

Here are certain recommendations in relation to German genders.

Masculine nouns

~ masculine beings, such as der Mann, der Lehrer (a teacher), der Junge (a boy), der Sohn (a son), der Bruder (a brother), etc

~ weekdays, months, seasons, such as der Montag (Monday), der Januar (January), der Frühling (Spring)

~ cardinal directions and winds, such as der Norden (the North), der Passat (trade wind)

~ minerals, such as der Diamant (diamond)

~ currencies, such as der Dollar (dollar), der Frank (frank) but there are exceptions, i.e die Krone (krona)

~ most nouns that end at -ig, -ich, -ing, -ast, -en, such as der Honig (honey), der Teppich (carpet)

~ most celestial bodies, such as der Planet (planet), der Stern (star), der Mond (moon)

BUT: die Sonne (the Sun), die Venus (Venus)

~ lakes and non-German rivers, such as der Amazonas (Amazon river)

~ fall-outs, cars, alcohol beverages, such as  der Regen (rain), der Schnee (snow), der Mercedes (Mercedes), der Wodka (vodka)

Feminine nouns

~ feminine beings, such as die Frau (a woman), die Tochter (a daughter), die Kuh (a cow)

BUT: das Mädchen (a girl)

~ most nouns that end with -e and –a, such as die Themse (the Thames), die Sonne (the Sun), die Straße (street)

BUT: das Auge (eye), das Ende (end);

~ most of names for trees, flowers, fruits, such as die Tanne (fir tree), die Rose (rose), die Birne (pear)

~ nouns that end with -ei, -ie, – in, -ion, -tät, -heit, -keit, -ung, -schaft, such as die Melodie (melody), die Philosophie (philosophy), die Nation (nation), die Universität (university), die Wohnung (apartment)

Neuter nouns

~ young beings, such as das Kind (a child), das Lamm, das Kalb (a calf)

~ some animals, such as das Pferd (horse), das Schaf (sheep)

~ cities and countries when they are used with adjectives, otherwise they are used without an article with few exceptions: das große London (big London), das schöne Nürnberg (beautiful Nürnberg) , Exceptions: der Haag (the Hague), die Schweiz (Switzerland), der Irak (Irak), countries that end with -ei (they are feminine)

~ metals, such as das Gold (gold), das Kupfer (copper)

BUT: der Stahl (steel)

~ nouns that end with -chen и –lein, such as das Mädchen (girl)

~ nouns that end with -tum and -(i)um, such as das Gymnasium (gymnasium);

~ letters, physical units, such as  das A, das Ypsilon, das Kilowatt

These are just a few categories (not all the nouns can be categorized like this) but at least now you will have an idea of German genders. You will see later why it is important.

Next week we will talk some more about grammar and will learn how to use nouns in their plural forms.

Lesson 9: Talking about Yourself or anyone else (creating short texts)

In our previous letter we have covered one important topic that will help us now create short (or not so short) sentences. We have learnt how to use Present Tense.

I suggest we will get a few steps back and will first try to remember how we would introduce ourselves.


Based on this table we can now prepare short introduction dialogs.


Speaker 1: Hallo, ich bin Anna. Und wie heißt du?

Speaker 2: Ich heiße Alexander.

Speaker 1: Wie geht es dir?

Speaker 2: Danke, es geht. Und dir?

Speaker 1: Danke, gut.

Now, I believe you are capable of translating this small dialog into English but I would like to give you some assistance so that you would know for sure if you did it right.


Speaker 1: Hi, I am Anna. And what is your name?

Speaker 2: My name is Alexander.

Speaker 1: How are you??

Speaker 2: Fine, thanks. And you?

Speaker 1: Great, thanks!

Using the template prepare 2 dialogs, one formal and one informal. Write them down and read them aloud. Once done you can proceed to the next part of our lesson.

Where are you from?

‘Where are you from?’ is a common question in all new interactions.

In German it is


‘Woher kommen Sie? (or Wo kommen Sie her?’)


‘Woher kommst du? (or Wo kommst du her?’)

If you remember our previous lesson you will be able to give an answer to this question:

Ich komme aus =  I am from…

Ich komme aus den USA.

Ich komme aus Spanien.

Ich komme aus Russland.

Let’s now ask where is someone else from?

Woher kommt Anna?

Woher kommt Peter?

The response would be:

Anna kommt aus (Berlin, Italy, Madrid, etc).

Peter kommt aus (fill in the blanks).

Now I believe we are quite ready for our first small text. Please read the texts below and translate them into English. Use the suggested vocabulary if necessary.

Text 1.

Das ist Monika Schulz. Sie kommt aus Berlin. Aber jetzt lebt sie in Dortmund. Sie ist verheiratet und hat zwei Kinder. Frau Schulz ist 32 Jahre alt. Sie ist Lehrerin von Beruf. Aber zur Zeit ist sie Hausfrau. Monika hat zwei Hobbys: Lesen und Malen.


Leben – to live

… Jahre alt sein – to be … years old

Verheiratet – married

Kinder – children

die Lehrerin – teacher

der Beruf – profession

Zur Zeit – at the moment

die Hausfrau – housewife

Lesen – to read

Malen – to paint


This is Monika Schulz. She is from Berlin. Bit now she lives in Dortmund. She is married and has 2 children. Missis Schulz is 32 years old. She is a teacher by profession. But at the moment she is a housewife. Monika hast wo hobbies: reading and painting.

Text 2

Marie Klein ist Ärztin in Leipzig. Sie ist 28 Jahre alt. Sie ist ledig und hat ein Kind. Marie spielt seht gut Klavier. Das ist ihr Hobby.


die Ärztin – doctor

ledig – single, not married

Klavier spielen – to play the piano


Marie Klein is a doctor in Leipzig. She is 28 years old. She is single and has a child. Marie plays the piano very well. This is her hobby.

You can see that preparing short texts in German is not that complicated. Let’s try one more time. But now you will be the one creating the text. Please fill in the blanks.


Klaus Mueller


35, ledig


Tennis spielen



Sein Hobby

And finally, let’s play a bit. Some oft he words have been lost in a labyrynth. Search them and build up a text.



Start with ‘Das ist Monika.’


And finally, the most important task of all, create a short text about yourself. Use words and phrases you learned in today’s lesson.


In our next lessons we will dive into some more of German grammar so that we would have a chance to create even better texts!

Lesson 8: Present Tense for Regular Verbs

In order to be able to speak and understand German you need to know a little bit more than just basic phrases and expressions. The basis of each sentence is a verb. It bears the most meaning in most cases unless it is an auxiliary verb (sein (to be), haben (to have) and some more that we will learn later). Most of the verbs in German are regular. It means that their conjugation follows a standard pattern that we will learn today.

We will start with Present Simple Tense (Präsens). There is nothing complicated about that. You take the verb’s stem and add a personal ending to that.

Stem: You might have noticed that most verbs in German end with –en (i.e. heißen). Anything before that –en is the verb’s stem.

Ending: In English we will only add the ending –s when in the 3rd person. See, I play but he/she plays. In German verbs will get endings in all persons. Good news is that the pattern is pretty simple and same endings would apply to irregular verbs, too. Though there are some other things you will have to pay attention to with irregular verbs. But that’s later. For now let’s stick to regular verbs and their conjugation.

You are familiar with personal pronouns already.

ich I
du You (informal)
er/sie/es He/she/it
wir We
ihr You
sie / Sie They/You (formal)

Now, let’s learn the ending pattern

ich e
du st
er/sie/es t
wir en
ihr t
sie / Sie en

What we will do now is that we will take a regular German verb ‘fragen’ (ask) and will conjugate it.

We take the step ‘frag-‘ and just add the endings provided above:

ich frage I ask
du fragst You ask
er/sie/es fragt He/she (it) asks
wir fragen We ask
ihr fragt You ask
sie / Sie fragen They ask

Simple as that! Now you can conjugate German regular and almost can conjugate German irregular verbs.

There are a few things that you need to pay attention though.

  • the verb’s stem ends with  t; d; m or n

For example: arbeiten (to work), finden (to find), etc.

The pattern will look slightly different but not complicated to remember. An additional –e is added to ease the pronunciation.

Ich arbeit e
Du arbeit e st
Er, sie, es arbeit e t
Wir arbeit en
Ihr arbeit e t
Sie, sie arbeit en

Here is a list of similar verbs. Please write them down, find their meanings in the dictionaries, and memorize them:

antworten; arbeiten; atmen; begegnen; beobachten; bilden; bitten; finden; gründen; heiraten; mieten; öffnen; rechnen; reden; retten; trocknen; warten; zeichnen


  • the verb’s stem ends with s; ß; x or z

It happens rarely and the only difference in pattern is that the ending –st is changed to –t when we use the verb with ‘du’ pronoun. You have seen that in the conjugation of the verb heißen.

Ich heiße
Du heiß( ) t
Er, sie, es heißt
Wir heißen
Ihr heißt
Sie, sie heißen

Here is a list of similar verbs. Please write them down, find their meanings in the dictionaries, and memorize them:

beweisen;    heizen;    mixen;    reisen;    reißen;    reizen;    s. setzen;    sitzen

  • the verb’s stem ends with n

This is even the smaller group of verbs. If their step ends with an –l we can see the following pattern:

sammeln (to collect)
Ich samm( )le
Du du sammelst
Er, sie, es sammelt
Wir sammeln
Ihr sammelt
Sie, sie sammeln

Here is a list of similar verbs. Please write them down, find their meanings in the dictionaries, and memorize them:

googeln;    lächeln;    klingeln;  sammeln; ändern (ich ändere, du änderst, er ändert, wir ändern, ihr ändert);  dauern (erinnern;   feiern;   klappern;   verbessern

Now you are all set and no regular German verb can be a trouble for you. Let’s see if that’s true.

Fill in the missing endings for the following verbs:

Ich wart-e sitz- komm-e
Du wart-est sitz- komm-
Er, sie, es wart- sitz-t komm-t
Wir wart-en sitz- komm-en
Ihr wart- sitz-t komm-
Sie, sie wart- sitz-en komm-

Find 15 regular verbs in the following image. Sort them according to the type of conjugation and conjugate them. Translate them into English and memorize.

In our next lesson we will start creating short German text speaking about ourselves and our friends, neighbors, or relatives.

Lesson 7: Numbers

In this lesson you will learn how to count in German. We’ll start with the basic numbers and move on to compound numbers and dates.

Look at the table below first:

1                    eins

2                    zwei

3                    drei

4                    vier

5                    fünf

6                    sechs

7                    sieben

8                    acht

9                    neun

10                zehn

11                elf

12                zwölf

13                dreizehn

14                vierzehn

15                fünfzehn

16                sechzehn

17                siebzehn

18                achtzehn

19                neunzehn

20                zwanzig

These are the basic numbers in German. Notice that all of the numbers in the teens end with “zehn” for “ten.” After twenty, you simply place the smaller digit in front of the larger number and add “and.”

For example, 21-29:

21                einundzwanzig

22                zweiundzwanzig

23                dreiundzwanzig

24                vierundzwanzig

25                fünfundzwanzig

26                sechsundzwanzig

27                siebenundzwanzig

28                achtundzwanzig

29                neunundzwanzig

The pattern for the rest of the numbers is very similar. Here are a few other numbers:

30         dreißig

40        vierzig

50         fünfzig

60         sechzig

70         siebzig

80         achtzig

90         neunzig

100       hundert

In order to write dates, you need to know an altered set of numbers. One is an exception to the pattern of numbers for dates. If you want to say the first, you have to use “erste.” For the rest of the numbers 2-20, you simply add “te” to the end of the number. (7 becomes siebte). For higher numbers, you add “ste” to the end (einundzwanzigste).

Lesson 6: Months

This lesson will teach you the months and seasons in German.

The words for the seasons are as follows:

Winter             der Winter

Spring              der Frühling

Summer          der Sommer

Fall                  der Herbst

If you want to say “in spring, in summer,” etcetera, you can use the word “im” for “in.” Im simply goes before the season.

For example: Es ist kalt im Winter. This means, “It is cold in winter.”

The months are as follows:

January            Januar             (Yahn-yoo-are)

February          Februar           (Feh-brew-are)

March             März                (Mehrz)

April                April                (Ah-pril)

May                 Mai                  (My)

June                 Juni                  (Yoo-knee)

July                  Juli                   (Yoo-lee)

August             August             (Auw-goost)

September      September      (Zep-tem-ber)

Oktober           Oktober           (Ok-to-ber)

November       November       (No-vem-ber)

December       Dezember        (Day-zehm-ber)

As you can see, the months are really similar to their English counterparts. Some of them even have the exact same spelling; they are just pronounced a little differently.

In order to say “in December, in October,” etcetera, you use “im” just like with the seasons. If you want to say “on December 17th,” you have to use “am” instead of “im.”

Mein Geburtstag ist am siebzehnte Dezember. (My birthday is on December 17th).

(Note: This sentence would normally be spoken like the sentence above, but be written like this: Mein Geburtstag ist am 17. Dezember.)

Notice how the number changed from siebzehn (17) to siebzehnte (17th) because it is being used as a date. Numbers and their forms will be taught in the next lesson.

Mein Geburtstag ist im Winter.

My birthday is in the winter.

The above sentence is an example of when it is appropriate to use “im” instead of “am.”

Lesson 5: Days of the Week

Days of the Week

The purpose of this lesson is to teach you how to say the days of the week in German. Take a look at the list below:

Sunday             der Sonntag

Monday           der Montag

Tuesday           der Dienstag

Wednesday     der Mittwoch

Thursday         der Donnerstag

Friday              der Freitag

Saturday          der Samstag

Most names end with “tag” because it is the German word for “day.” The days of the week are simple to learn and follow a pattern much like their English counterparts. Wednesday is the only day that doesn’t end in Tag. “Mittwoch” literally means “midweek.” This is why the ending is “woch” instead of “tag.”

Usually, if you want to say something is happening on a certain day of the week, you place the word “am” before it. “Am” is the equivalent of “on.”

The article for the days of the week is always “der.” This is usually omitted when using “am.”

For example:

I’m coming on Wednesday.    Ich komme am Mittwoch.

Ich is the word for “I,” Mittwoch for “Wednesday,” and “am” for “on.” Komme is the conjugated form of kommen which means, “to come or arrive.” Look at the sample sentences below for more practice with days of the week:

Welcher Tag ist heute?           Which day is it today?

Heute ist Donnerstag.             Today is Thursday.

Welcher Tag ist morgen?       Which day is tomorrow?

Morgen ist Freitag.                 Tomorrow is Friday.

Dann kommt Samstag.           Then, comes Saturday.

Ich habe Chemie, Japanisch, und Deutsch am Dienstag.

On Tuesday, I have chemistry, Japanese, and German.

You can also add “jeden” or “letzten” before the days of the week. “Jeden” means “every” and “letzten” means “last.”

Examples: letzten Montag (last Monday) and jeden Donnerstag (every Thursday).

Jeden Mittwoch, ich gehe zur Schule.            I go to school every Wednesday.

Lesson 4: Colors

Colors work exactly like adjectives do in German (and they are, technically, adjectives as
well). Colors can end a sentence and can be negated with nicht. If the color is
being negated, nicht must appear before the color.

List of

braun               brown

blau                 blue

schwartz          black

lila                   purple

weiß                white

grün                 green

orange             orange

gelb                 yellow

golden             gold

silbern             silver


Below are
some example sentences using colors (some sentences show the negation of the

Es ist nicht
silbern. Es ist golden.

It is not
silver. It is gold.

Das Auto ist

The car is

Das Buch ist
nicht gelb.

The book is
not yellow.


Using colors
in sentences is really easy once you understand how adjectives function in a

You can also
modify the basic colors by placing a prefix before the word. By using prefixes,
you can say “light blue” or “dark blue” instead of just “blue.” The prefix for
light is “hell-“ and the prefix for dark is “dunkel-.”

Take a look
at the example sentences below.

Das ist
nicht hellblau. Das ist dunkelblau.

That is not
light blue. That is dark blue.

Handtasche ist dunkelbraun.

The purse is
dark brown.

Das Auto ist
schwartz und dunkelgrün.

The car is
black and dark green.

Das Haus ist
braun und weiß.

The house is
brown and white.


Lesson 3: Basic Nouns and Adjectives

This lesson
will give you some basic nouns and adjectives and teach you how to use them as
well as negate them.

These lists
will give you some basic vocabulary, starting with nouns in the first list
followed by adjectives in the second list.


der Mann        man

die Frau           woman

das Mädchen  girl

der Junge        boy

die Katze         cat

der Hund         dog

das Buch          book

der Tisch         table

der Stuhl          chair

das Zimmer     room



alt                    old

jung                 young

müde               tired

gut                   good

kalt                  cold

heiß                 hot

warm               warm

groß                 tall

klein                short/small

schön               beautiful

hässlich           ugly

dünn                skinny

dick                  fat

freundlich        friendly

It is
important to remember that ALL proper nouns are capitalized in German. This
includes Sie when it is used as a formal pronoun (meaning “you”). All nouns
also carry what is called an “article.” The basic articles in German are der,
die, and das. Keep in mind that “die” in German is pronounced like “dee” and
“das” is pronounced like “dass.” The German “w” is pronounced like a “v” in

Take a look
at the following example sentences to learn how to use the vocabulary above.

Der Mann ist

The man is

Die Frau ist

The woman is

Das Mädchen ist sehr

The girl is
very friendly.

Das Zimmer
ist kalt.

The room is

Der Hund ist

The dog is

Notice that
the sentence starts with the noun and is followed by the correct conjugation of
the verb (in this case the verb “to be”). The adjectives follow and it is
grammatically correct to have them end the sentence in these examples.


In order to
negate a noun, the correct form of the word “kein” must be used. The form of
the word will depend on the article that appears before the noun.

Der is the
masculine article, die is feminine, and das is neutral. Kein changes to keine
when used before the article die. When used with der and das, kein is
appropriate. When using kein, the article does not need to appear before the

For example:
Ich bin kein Mann. This sentence uses kein because the article of Mann is der.
Der is replaced by kein. This sentence translates to “I am not a man.”

example: Das ist keine Katze. Keine is used because die is the article that
appears before Katze. This sentence means, “That is not a cat.”

In order to
negate an adjective, you must use the word nicht.

For example:
Die Frau ist nicht alt. Nicht appears before the adjective it is negating. This
sentence means “The woman is not old.”